Technological and Environmental Transformations to c. 600 B.C.E.: the Transition from the Paleolithic to Neolithic Era, and the Formation of Early Complex Societies
Transitioning from Big History, as inquired into by PBS’ Eons YouTube page, we can then adjust our historical time scale from the geologic to the human scale. Even though it’s not a major focus of the AP College Board’s curriculum, Mr. Cameron is fascinated by the evolution of humans. Recognizing the importance of the cognitive revolution and collective learning, how did homo sapiens out-compete the other six human species that existed 100,000 years ago? One answer might lie in our ability to run – Christopher McDougall: The Humanity of Running. To problematize the cooperative efforts innate in collective learning, we can read this account of a historian chronicling a constant tool of division among people of earth – Robert Sapolsky: How Your Brain Hates Other People, and How to Make It Think Differently.
* * *
Foundations KC 1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth. Throughout the Paleolithic era, humans developed sophisticated technologies and adapted to different geographical environments as they migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australasia, and the Americas.
Growing archaeological evidence suggests some mixing of different bi-pedal species in the early paleolithic period. An NPR article from 2013 investigated a new discovery of inter-species breeding; the article was followed-up in 2018 with the (SECSEE?) title of Ancient Bone Reveals Surprising Sex Lives Of Neanderthals.
- Barbara J. King: Adoption Of Bow Use In Ancient Hunting May Have Set Off Societal Changes.
- Global Spread of Homo Sapiens – Bentley textbook pgs. 8-9
* * *
Foundations KC 2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, some human communities adopted sedentism and agriculture, while others pursued hunter-forager/gatherer or pastoralist lifestyles — different pathways that had significant social and demographic ramifications.
- Jared Diamond: To Farm or Not to Farm?
- Jared Diamond: The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race
- Curtis W. Marean: The Most Invasive Species
- Origins and early spread of agricultural foodstuffs – Bentley pgs. 22-23
- Tom Standage: Introduction to A History of the World in Six Glasses – Beer
- NPR: Students Seek To Re-Create Ancient Beer Recipe Discovered In Pottery Vessels
- Map: Spread of Agricultural Settlement to Western Europe, c. 7000 – 2000 BCE
- Indo-European migrations, c. 3000 – 1000 BCE – Bentley pg. 53
- Humanized Landscapes in the Western Hemisphere Before 1492 – Charles Mann
* * *
Foundations KC 3: The Development and Interaction of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies. The appearance of the first urban societies 5,000 years ago laid the foundations for the development of complex civilizations; these civilizations shared several significant social, political, and economic characteristics.
- Ancient (Eastern) Middle East:
- Harappan society and its neighbors c. 2000 BCE – Bentley 90
- Ancient (Central) Middle East
- Early Mesopotamia, c. 3000 – 2000 BCE – Bentley pg. 33
- Mesopotamian Empires, c. 1800 – 600 BCE – Bentley pg. 35
- Selections of Legal Codes from Early Middle Eastern Empires
- Ancient (Northern) Africa:
- Imperial Egypt, c. 1400 BCE – Bentley pg. 68
- Pnina Galpaz-Feller: Adultery in Ancient Egypt and Biblical Israel
- Ancient Sub-Saharan Africa:
- Ancient Greece:
- Israel and Phoenicia, c. 1500 thru 600 BCE – Bentley 46
- Ancient East Asia:
- The Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties, 2200 – 256 BCE – Bentley pg. 112
- Chinese Zhou Ritual Vessel c. 1100 BCE
- China during the Period of the Warring States, 403 – 221 BCE – Bentley pg. 115
- Archeological Institute of America: Continuing the Quest for China’s Origins
- Yuan Haiwang: Early Chinese History
- Ancient Southeast Asia:
- Gua Badak: Cave art from the past.
- Megaliths of the Kelabit Highlands.
- Neolithic Burials Discovered in East Malaysia.
- For a great collection of archaeological resources, check out the Smithsonian Institute’s collection of Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia.
- Ancient Americas:
- Ancient Oceania:
* * *
Crash Course conceptualizes and problematizes the idea of CIVILIZATION:
… and continues with the historically problematic fall of many classical civilizations between 1210 and 1130 BCE…
REVIEW of Unit 1
Check out Freeman-pedia’s page on the Paleo->Neolithic age and development of early complex societies.
SAQ Prep for Bentley Textbook Chs. 1-6: The Formation of Early Complex Societies c. 8000 BCE – 600 BCE
1) Why do you want to take AP world? What do you hope to learn?
2) a) Identify ONE cause of the Neolithic (agricultural) Revolution. b) Identify ONE effect of the Neolithic Revolution. c) Justify the importance of the neolithic revolution within the context of the existence of homo sapiens.
3) Explain ONE cause for the development of city-states and justify its importance. Explain ONE effect of the development of city-states and explain its importance.
4) Many historians identify 8000 BCE to 600 BCE as a historic period. Provide TWO pieces of evidence that support this periodization and explain how each piece supports the argument. Provide ONE piece of evidence that undermines this periodization and explain how it undermines the argument.
…Bentley Textbook Chapter Outlines & Lectures…
Just as we do with our unit-by-unit SECSE Maps (on the “Geography!” page of the website), it will be important that we annotate and color-code our chapter notes by key concept. Here you’ll also find the lectures for each chapter; again, students should take the time to apply these notes to specific key concepts seen in the Key Concept HW Packet.
- Ch. 1: Before History & LECTURE
- Ch. 2: Early Societies in South East Asia & Indo-European Migrations – LECTURE
- Ch. 3: Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations
- Ch. 4: Early Societies in South Asia & LECTURE
- Ch. 5: Early Society in East Asia & LECTURE
- Ch. 6: Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania & LECTURE
- KEY CONCEPT OVERVIEW by Bill Strickland.
* * *
* * *
(Re)Organization of Human Societies from c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.: The Classical Era
Classical KC 1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions. As states and empires increased in size and contacts between regions intensified, human communities transformed their religious and ideological beliefs and practices.
- Classical Asia:
- Classical India:
- Classical Greece & the Middle East, here as Persia:
- William McNeill: Greek and Indian Civilization
- Hellenistic empires, c. 275 BCE – Bentley pg. 244
- Greece, c. 800 – 350 BCE – Bentley pg. 234
- Greece & The Mediterranean Basin, c. 800 – 500 BCE – Bentley pg. 238
- Alexander’s empire, c. 323 BCE – Bentley pg. 242
- Classical Rome & the Middle East:
- The Twelve Tables of Early Roman Law c. 450 BCE
- Expansion of the Roman Republic to 146 BCE. Bentley pg. 263
- Selections on the Conditions of Women in Classical Civilizations: China, India, and Rome.
- DBQ: Traditional Gender Roles in East Asia.
* * *
Classical KC 2: The Development of States and Empires. As the early states and empires grew in number, size, and population, they frequently competed for resources and came into conflict with one another.
- Early Persian Statehood: Sheda Vasseghi: Law & Order Under the Achaemenids and Ali Farazmand: Administrative Legacies of the Persian World-State Empire.
- Shifting geographic regions; maintaining chronological sequence:
- DBQ: Attitudes Toward Han and Roman Technology.
- THESIS WORK: “Qualifying an Argument”.
- DBQ: Factors of Successful Classical Era Rulers.
- DBQ: Slavery Supporting Political and Economic Systems.
- Yuan Haiwang: Qin and Han China.
- China after the Han Dynasty, c. 220 CE – Bentley pg. 303
- Germanic Invasions and the fall of the W. Roman empire, 450 – 476 CE – Bentley pg. 307
- Procopius: On the Plague of 542.
- The Byzantine Empire and its neighbors, 527 – 544 CE – Bentley pg. 319
- William Rosen: “Affairs of State – Marriage and Politics in Early Byzantium”
- Sources on the Internal and External Conflicts of the Early Byzantine Empire.
- Sverdrup et al.: “The World 5 model; Peak metals, minerals, energy, wealth, food and population” – Natural Resources Building and Ruining the Western Roman Empire.
* * *
Classical KC 3: Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange. With the organization of large-scale empires, trans-regional trade intensified, leading to the creation of extensive networks of commercial and cultural exchange.
- Subhakanta Behera: India’s Encounter with the Silk Road
- The Silk Roads, c. 200 BCE – 300 CE – Bentley pg. 292
- The spread of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity, c. 200 BCE – 400 CE – Bentley pg. 297
- Hundreds of Roman Gold Coins Found in Theater Basement (2018)
While some Classical era civilizations seek to control limited amounts of water, some are masters of surrounding oceans. Similarly, water is yet another factor in the story of human ingenuity as a function of movement; some human migrations have origins from Paleolithic times, like the Bantu migrations out of the Great Rift Valley in east Africa. Others long lasting human migrations, like the Polynesian migrations, began later, but still happened over the course of multiple historical periods. Let’s inquire into the later of these two major migrations. Consider this map of Polynesia, as well as PNAS’ 2011 article by John Terrell titled “Recalibrating Polynesian Pre-history.” Consider too the possibility of South American interaction with the region of Polynesia, as suggested by the work of Thor Heyerdahl in Kon Tiki (1948). Finally, inquire into some of the most awesome maritime navigation ingenuity in human history:
Freeman-pedia’s page on the Classical era is great for REVIEW!
…Bentley Textbook Chapter Outlines…
Just as we do with our unit-by-unit SECSE Maps (on the “Geography!” page of the website), it will be important that we annotate and color-code chapter notes.
* * *
* * *
Regional and Inter-regional Interactions c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450: The Post-Classical Era
Post-Classical KC 1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks. A deepening and widening of networks of human interaction within and across regions contributed to cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies.
- Christopher Beckwith: Northern Asia’s Encounters with the Silk Road
- Stewart Gordon: Xuanzang’s Overland Travels in the Early 600’s
Classical and Post-Classical Era Document-Based Question (DBQ):
- State and Religious Responses to Wealth Accumulation in the Classical and Post-Classical Era
- DBQ Scoring Guidelines (pages 11-16 only) are available only thru Mr. Cameron.
- Student samples of this DBQ are available only thru Mr. Cameron.
* * *
Post-Classical KC 2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions. State formation and development demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity in various regions.
- Post-Classical Asia:
- The Sui and Tang Dynasties, 589 – 907 – Bentley pg. 377
- The Song Dynasty in China, 960 – 1279. Bentley pg. 383
- DBQ: Economic Growth as a Function of Chinese State Policies.
- Post-Classical Mediterranean and Arabian Basins:
- The expansion of Islam, 632 – 733. Bentley pg. 354
- Tamim Ansary. Destiny Disrupted. “Empire of the Umayyads” 661-737 CE
- ibid. “The Abbasid Age” 737-961 CE
- Crash Course: Islam, The Quran, and the Five Pillars.
- Successor states to the Roman empire, c. 600 – Bentley pg. 435
- The Byzantine Empire and its neighbors, c. 1100 – Bentley pg. 337
- The Turkish empires and their neighbors, c. 1210 – Bentley pg. 466
- Post-Classical Europe:
- Beginning with the Vikings in the western European isles…
- The Carolingian empire, 814. Bentley pg. 439
- The dissolution of the Carolingian empire, 843. Bentley pg. 442
* * *
Post-Classical KC 3: Increased Economic Productive Capacity and its Consequences. Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes.
* * *
Freeman-Pedia’s page on the Post-Classical era is great for review!
…Bentley Textbook Chapter Outlines…
Just as we do with our unit-by-unit SECSE Maps (on the “Geography!” page of the website), it will be important that we annotate and color-code our chapter notes.