Mr. C’s APWH Resources

Resources on Applying APWH Historical Reasoning Skills

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AP World History Content Resources

APWH Course Framework: the College Board’s overview of the curriculum includes historical thinking skills, thematic learning objectives, geographical coverage, and concept outlines.  Notice that many of these pages are key components of the 6 Unit Key Concept Packets.

– An incredibly useful review tool, the APWH Glossary of Terms, is color-coded by Period. Flow of History is an excellent site that students can use to chart cause and effect over time. chronologically maps major events throughout history, and is searchable by several topics – pretty cool.  Geacron tracks the geography of the rise and fall of civilizations with an interactive world atlas – rad. Finally, and on a lighter note, historyteacher ‘s YouTube channel is a total blast.

– The BBC and Neil MacGregor team up to understand The History of the World in 100 Objects.

Awesome Visualization of Chronology and Themes: the award-winning and easy to use Freeman-pedia has a great layout through each of the six time periods of study.

– HistoryHaven’s Review of SECSE themes across all 6 periods of AP World History:

Study & Annotation Resources

– How to Study for this class: Homework is my liiiiife!

– Annotate the Text: An essential skill for humanities coursework.

AP Exam Skills Resources (if you’re into that)

Excellent Overview of Big Tips for the APWH Exam:  The importance of the intro paragraph; DBQ tips & point of view help; logistical time concerns; multiple choice review tips; crazy teacher tips.  Mr. Cameron will use this material to familiarize students with primary source analysis, interpretation, and application.

– AP essay writing skill: ‘Answering_the_Question‘ by Bill Strickland.  This source is the BEST Mr. Cameron can find on how to make sure all aspects of the prompt are addressed.

– For that fateful day in May: What to Bring on Exam Day.

45 thoughts on “Mr. C’s APWH Resources

  1. As the first humans began to settle, they migrated towards river valleys and other resource rich regions to improve their way of life. Similarly, in the age of exploration, empires began to send out explorers to map out routes to known locations. During this process, they found regions previously unknown to them with abundances of different resources. After finding these locations, the empires colonized the locations to take advantage of the resource rich environment, just like the first civilizations did with the river valleys.

  2. The social inequality observed between the indo-European peoples greatly influenced the rest of history. Over 2000 years later there is still a large social injustice. In the mid 1900’s movements for woman’s civil rights as well as originizations such as the Seneca Falls Convention emerged to combat the patriarchal structure set in place by the early civilizations.

  3. Gender roles are starting to develop as women and men find different roles in their villages; generally patriarchies were glorified. We also see this in the beginning of the Industrial Revolution where women worked around the house to take care of the family and the men still ran the household. Later in this period, however, women began working in textile factories for small wages which struck up women’s rights movements.

  4. 1860s Russia vs Present Day Russia
    After the Russian defeat during the Crimean war, Alexander 2 was promoted to westernize Russia by introducing liberal reforms that made Russia more capitalistic and industrialist. This is very similar to the state of Russia in the late 1980s and early 1990s. As the Soviet Union fell, leaders such as Gorbachev began opening up to the Western world, introducing much more capitalistic policies to Russia.

  5. Finally, the Cold War’s “American Hunt for Communism” is very similar to the 21st century “War on Terror” because in the early Cold War campaigns of Vietnam and Korea, the US had the common goal of stopping the spread and influence of communism and the economic affects that these political regimes were spreading. Similarly, the American government today wants to completely eradicate the extremist Muslim regimes in the Middle East such as ISIS and Al Qaeda in hopes of saving their own economic and geopolitical interests. This connects the United States goal of keeping themselves present in European Economics and politics- through trade agreements like the TransAtlantic Trade agreement and NATO.

  6. In early human civilization humans began to create social hierarchies, this started with women and men having individual jobs that were symbiotic. Women gathered and cared for the children while men hunted, however both jobs were equally necessary and equally valued. Because of the seperation of work, gender roles became significant in the structure of society. Later, during the Post-Classical Era, Muhammad renforced the idea that both men and women have important roles in society, but for very different reasons. The differences caused more seperation long term, and even though the original idea promoted equality, the bridge between the genders became continuously longer and this divide showed itself in many ways of life and religion in the Post- Classical Era.

  7. In the warring states period of china, where there was no strong central government, much of the people in china were stricken with disunion and overall was a very weak nation. Similarly, very short after the founding of America, the founding fathers attempted to create a system of government known as the articles of confederation. Much like the warring states period, these articles resulted in a very weak central government and disunion in the colonies. In both cases, there was no good way for the government to efficiently collect taxes and both periods of time ended with a group of people ending up unifying the reigons to form one stronger central government.

    • In the preclassical era during the warring states period, the country china was split into multiple different reigons with no real central government. This led to disunion in the people and a very weak nation as a whole. Similarly, in the very early industrial era, directly after the country america was founded, the founding fathers created a form of government which was called the articles of confederation. Much like the warring states period, this form of government really had no central government and once again like the warring states period, this led to disunion in the people and an incredibly weak nation. In both cases neither government could control its people, collect taxes, or fend off threats to the nation. They both essentially failed the main purpose of a government which is to govern. Once again in both cases, this led to groups of people banding together to form one powerful central government

  8. 1. Paleolithic societies lacked rigid gender roles and had an egalitarian society where men and women contributed crucial resources. Men and women were equal in society because although men who were predominantly hunters provided protein, women provided most calories through gathering. While society evolved away from gender equality over time, this phenomenon is returning. The Enlightenment of the 18th century raised philosophical ideas concerning the equality of people. These rediscovered ideas eventually led to women’s suffrage movements internationally. Society is progressing, or perhaps regressing, to equality across genders.

  9. In the time before history, mankind was found on every livable continent in the world and some setlled while others maintained their nomadic lifestyles. Indo european peoples had deep nomadic ancestry and as they pushed out into the world, came to interact with and place themselves within the settled social structures they found. The Aryan people in which found their way to India and found themselves at the top of a social hierarchy that eventually turned into the caste system, defined by these migrations and ancestry to these migratory peoples and the previous inhabitants of the indian subcontinent. In the post classical period, southwest Asia came under the influence of Islamic caliphates. From the Umayyad to the Abassid caliphates, this nation grew to a large land based empire, largely dominated by Arabic culture. Arabic was the Holy language of Islam and Islam flourished in these lands. The pilgrimage to Mecca that is to be undergone by every able Muslim in their life united a nearly unprecedented amount of land, dotted by Arabic caravanasery. The nomadic Turkish people of central Asia also spread in this time eventually spilled into southwest Asia as well and eventually Turkish sultans came to rule the empire and brought with them, Turkish culture. This culture can be best remembered through its relevance in politics and governing. From Seljuk turks to the Sultans of the Ottoman empire, turkish culture was distinct in its perpetual cycle of Chief style lineage of rule and a combination of Turkish law with previous Islamic law.

  10. Finally, this expansion of global trade routes and expansion of people, goods, plants and animals after the Columbian exchange left the population with a steady increase and homogenized the planet, decreasing the diversity. This could be compared to the transition from Nomadic Hunter-Gatherer lifestyles to the agricultural lifestyle in the Neolithic age. During this time period the production of more staple foods allowed for a much higher population due to the higher caloric intake compared to that of someone who simply follows herds for their meals. This is very similar to how Columbus brought back beans, corn, and avocados from the Americas, since these foods have a much higher caloric value, people’s lifespan increased and so did the population.

    • Great. Buutttt… make sure to specify BOTH periods of history and the SECSE theme the topics of increasing populations as a function of increased trade and food availability.

  11. In the classical age, major trade routes began to develop, like the Silk Roads, which had a transcontinental reach at its peak, but was environmentally limited to connected regions because of the use of caravans. In the modern age, international trade is able to move materials and products from continent to continent. With the ability to reach each continent by planes or by ships, international trade is able to thrive. At their respective times, caravans and planes greatly increased the international ability to mass trade because of their ability to take advantage of transportation through the region.

    • Explicitly identify and explain the PERIODS and single THEME (economic). Can be improved by focusing on the EFFECT of this expanding economic activity.

  12. The Muslim cities allowed a spread of Islam and certain other technological advances because of their environmental placement, their social congregation and their economic influence among other empires. This situation can be mirrored to the city of London, located on the British Isles, and how it was very similar to the city of Baghdad, located in the Middle-East. These cities both had key environmental advantages that affected their trade interactions with other empires. In Britain, London has the river Thames, which allows trade from the English Channel into mainland England. In comparison, Baghdad is located in between Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, which allowed for the spread of multiple ideas and items through these key trade routes. These two cities are very different however, because they both had different religions being spread, different empires being established around them, and ultimately they were located different points in the world as one was located on an island, and one was located on the crossroads between West Asia and Europe. Finally, if there was a lack of these important cities in the middle-east during the times of southernization, then Islam would certainly not have been as widespread and the progressive advancements in technology and science would have happened much later.

  13. In the Abrahamic religion Christianity, Constantinople developed as a heavily influential city and a heart of the Christian Byzantine empire during the Post-Classical era. Similarly to Mecca, Constantinople grew around the religious values of which the city was founded on. The Hagia Sophia, a massive basilica, demonstrated the amount of wealth put into the city’s religious activities and values. Similar to the Kaaba, the most sacred Muslim shrine, which is located in Mecca, the Hagia Sophia was the center of religious activity in Constantinople and still attracts followers of the religion to this day, just like the Kaaba. In both Mecca and Constantinople, religious locations served as important epicenters of worship and attractions for followers of the faiths.

  14. From 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E, or the Post-Classical Age, Muslim cities and urban areas expanded religion, made advancements in education and technology, and strengthened trade relations with other non-Muslim areas. Similarly, during the Renaissance from 1300 C.E. to 1600 C.E., Florence did the same. While Baghdad was a religious epicenter for Islam, Florence was mainly Christian. In the Renaissance, Florence was bursting at the seams with new works of art, and many of these painting and sculptures were influenced by Christianity and the Bible, and as these pieces became more and more famous, Christianity was spread and celebrated. Also mirroring Baghdad in the Post-Classical Age, the Renaissance was a time period rich with new technologies in Florence. For example, Galileo Galilei was a major inventor and innovator of new creations such as the thermometer, sector, and telescope, and was also credited with the discoveries and/or research of the moon, Venus’ phases, Jupiter’s satellites, and sunspots. In Baghdad, many advancements and innovations were made regarding written language, religious texts, and the use of paper. Lastly, the location of Baghdad allowed for access from different empires, which eventually lead to its stable trade relations. Resembling this, Florence was located on the river Arno, which, through the port of Pisa, allowed access to the Tyrrhenian Sea; therefore allowing countless merchant ships to pass through Florence. This ultimately led to Florence’s domination of the trading world, a whole new social class of merchants, and its role as one of the wealthiest cities of the time period. Although Baghdad (600 C.E. to 1450 C.E.) and Florence, Italy (1300 C.E.-1600 C.E.) were in different historical periods, eras, and geographical areas, both cities became important religious epicenters, made important technological and educational advancements, and strengthened trade relations in their own times.

  15. During the Classical era, the Romans gave the world its first taste of real infrastructure, in building roads and keeping sewage at bay with complex underground systems. This helped keep disease at bay as well as lead to an efficient system of infrastructure which allowed for growth as an empire. What’s similar is the Industrial revolution in Europe from 1750 to the 1900s, which lead to infrastructure in Western Europe. After the countless plagues of the 1400s to the early 1700s, Europe began to create a functioning infrastructure to support the growing population that came with complex machinery and the assembly line.

  16. In East Asia, during the classical era, the Yangzi River Valley and Yellow River Valley laid adjacent to the Yangzi and Yellow rivers which provided good agriculture like rice and millet to these valleys. From these rivers also came the beginning of irrigation systems that were soon necessary in China because of the flooding from the Loess soil in the rivers. Similarly, Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers which also provided good produce and irrigation for the valley. It brought a lot of interactions between people along the river valleys who began trading and sharing ideas.

  17. The development of caravanserai in south east Asia during the post-classical era shares remarkable similarities to the African coastal forts built by the Portuguese during the age of exploration. Caravenserai developed to control trade and provide rest stops along the long land journey across Europe and Asia. While Portuguese controlled military forts primarily focused on controlling maritime trade and were placed for strategic military position, they likewise provided methods to regulate trade and places to resupply, which encouraged ever increasing trade frequency, boosting the economies of the empires controlling these towns, cities, and military forts.

  18. 2. The classical era ushered in the development of cities and empires, leading to humans living in closer proximity than ever before. This proximity led to a significant increase in devastating epidemics, which occurred in every classical society from Greece to China. Fear of pestilence manifested itself in the development of religions in this time, with the Bible detailing a great plague as a result of God’s wrath. These naturally occurring events were credited to the gods, changing the course of the development of religion.

  19. Classical Persia witnessed an economic expansion with the use of Qanats throughout the Persian landmass to turn previously unusable land into agriculturally productive land, necessary for a steady population growth ithroughout Persian cities like Persepolis. While classical Persia’s economic growth can be pwed to this, Medieval technological revelations allowed western Europe to interact with the environment in a new way. The invention of the iron plow and spread of monasteries led the growth of new agricultural land. Monasteries built on previously unusable land, contributed to land clearance and the iron plow followed through, turning difficult soil into readily arable land.

  20. One similarity between Greece during the Classical Era and and Byzantium during the Post-Classical Era is the architecture that was tied to the culture of the respective regions. The Greeks built a Parthenon that demonstrated the Greeks’ devotion to their polytheistic religion that emphasized the importance of honoring the gods. This is similar to when the Byzantines built the Hagia Sophia, which was a symbol of Christianity, the dominant religion of the empire at the time. Although these examples of architecture from different eras aare devoted to different religious values, they both demonstrate the similar ways in which religion manifested itself in both empires.

  21. The development of trade routes (most notably the Silk Roads) in the Classical Era seemed to benefit many civilizations. These routes allowed population to gather in specific areas which gave rise to empires, such as the Roman and the Parthian. The exchange of inventions and beliefs led to the development of many new political structures and religions, such as neo-confusionism and Sikhism. Little did these societies know that this cross-country travel would also have negative impacts, such as in the 1300’s when the black death ravaged Western Europe with incredible ease. This was due to the many travelers interacting on trade routes who could easily pass the disease along to one another.

  22. In the Neolithic Era the Bantu population of the Sahara migrated throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 2,000 years the Bantu population spread and brought their language and knowledge of agriculture and metallurgy to areas formerly occupied by nomads. The migration was spread because of the climatic changes in the Saharan Desert which became to dry to live in. This situation is similar to the Pacific Islands migrations in the contemporary era. The islands Tavalu and Nauru had thousands of people leaving because of climate change. The global warming is causing cyclones, floods, storms, droughts, and destruction of buildings. Tht are migrating to New Zealand and Australia because the dangers of the climate change. These two similar migrations have both been heavily influenced by climate change and enviromental factors.

  23. Brexit Vs. American Revolution

    In the late 1700s, British colonists in North America revolted against the British government to ultimately form a new nation, the USA. A large motivator for this revolution was the desire for economic freedom from an institution that the American people did not view to represent them, the British government. Ironically, this sentiment is mirrored in the British exit of the European Union, a trade organization that established “free” trade throughout the western Europe. This “Brexit” is very similar the American revolution, as both movements were driven by a desire for national economic autonomy.

    • Ya this is alright. It’d be good to specify the PERIODS and THEMES you’re comparing: while your theme is STATEHOOD, your PERIODS are between _________ & __________ …

  24. During the classical era, the establishment and the use of the silk roads spread different ideologies and religions because of the accessibility and convenience of the silk roads. For example, Nestorian Christianity is a mixture of Central Asian culture and the traditional European Christianity showing the adaption of alien religions on the societies and communities established along the silk roads. Similarly, in the early modern era, the Spanish and Portugese traveled along developing maritime trade routes to the Americas with the intent of spreading the religion of Christianity. As a result the Virgin of Guadalupe is an example of the syncretism of the indigenous South American culture and European Christianity.

  25. In post-classical China, different forms of Buddhism were being adapted to conform to their society, yet some people were still confused by the whole concept. The Buddhist monk, Xuanzang, was one of these people who was confused by Chinese Buddhism and so escaped to India. When he came back, he helped the adoption of Buddhism in China. In the classical era, when religion was still being explored in many areas of the world, Rome still believed in their Gods that they had had for centuries. Until Gregory the Wonderworker came to spread Paul of Taurus’ beliefs, Christianity was not spread throughout Rome.

  26. Classical Phoenician merchants found great success in spreading their trade throughout the mediteranean and beyond. This trade birthed powerful cities like Carthage and Mynoan and Mycenaen society. Phoenician sailing metworks became the receptacle of writing scripts like Linear A and Linear B, eventually finding its way into Greek linguistics. Similarly, colonial Spanish empire built a lucrative trading network defined by cities like Manila in the Phillipines, Acupulco on the coast of Mexico, and Lima in Peru. These same trade lanes became the vessels for language to spread and the Spanish language today can be traced from Buenos Aires to Havana to Mexico City and Manila. In both cases, long distance trade took a cultural turn and solidified linguistic identities.

  27. During the Early Modern Era, as trade routes began to become globally connected after the Columbian exchange and The European discovery of the Indian Ocean basin, The Chinese under the Ming deployed sailors such as Zheng He as a way of protecting maritime trade routes. In comparison, during the Post classical Era, the Mongols in the Persian Ilkhanate defended trade centers along the Silk Road as a way of creating economic stability in the region. In both cases, there was an increase in economic interaction due to increased security.

  28. China, under the Ming dynasty, deployed vast navy fleets under the direction of captains such as Zheng He to protect established trading posts. This reflects a broader, universal theme of desire to protect economic assets, which can be shown at an earlier time period – during the classical period – where the Persian empire, under the direction of Cyrus, built and policed roads and other trade routes in order to preserve the crucial transfer of goods across the vast expanses under his control, which ultimately led to a more stable and powerful economy.

  29. The bubonic plague, in the post classical era, is similar to the Irish potato famine, in the industrial era, in terms of the affect it has on the population. Both of these events result in a very similar drop in population and they also have a similar affect on the people affected. Both instances result in the societies having to start a new.

  30. In the Post-Classical time period, the cultural and religious crusades of the Catholic Europeon population led to religious based wars that ended in immense number of deaths on both sides. This mass loss of life in this time period demonstrated to the world the possibility of large scale clashes in religious ideologies. These clashes in the crusades are similar to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Early Modern Era and the losses suffered in these wars. When reflecting upon the expansion and eventual retraction of the Ottoman Empire, it is feasible to see that the clash between the Islamic religion and Christian ideas led to these two close regions to fight in places such as Greece in large scale conflicts. Throughout all time periods, it can be deciphered that religion ideologies are a major cause of war.

  31. During the Post-Classical Era, the Mongols established themselves throughout all of Asia for a short period of time, they were remebered as horrible rape and pillagers however they were also extremely important in the spread and introduction of good and technologies. For example the Mongols transferred gunpower from China to Europe and it reached them by 1258 and was used first in the Battle of Crécy in 1346. This was a major improvement in battle strategy that would not have reached Europeans as soon if not for the Mongols. In a similar fashion, and occurring in the same time period, the Saljuq Turks lived on the borders of the Abbasid realm, mid-eight to mid-tenth centuries. Similar to the view of the Mongols in China, the Seljuk Turks were not perceived well, however they made a important contribution to economic and cultural exchange.

  32. The jati that developed in India in the classical era, but remained in place for hundreds of years, provided help and protection to workers of similar occupations and social status. They often lived in a similar part of the city and provided economic support for each other. A similar phenomenon occurred through the Industrial Revolution in the early modern era, where labor unions formed to protect the rights of workers in specific occupations. While this increased the prominence of social stratification, it also provided economic stability by ensuring that labourers were kept content with their rights, preventing harmful events like strikes.

  33. 3. Alexander the Great had one of the largest empire of the postclassical era, this is undoubtedly the result of military conquest as opposed to other forms of expansion. His expansion was primarily fueled for want of resources, especially land. The British empire experienced a similar phenomenon in the postclassical era in which they enforced imperialist rule on other countries to exploit their resources for themselves. These empires were both militarily superior despite their lesser resources, and actively suppressed the countries they invaded to gain resources.

  34. During the classical period one of the biggest events in the roman empire was the assassination of Julius Caesar. This event spun the entire world in the time period into turmoil and led to massive conflicts in many population heavy areas. Similarly, another event which caused massive turmoil in the early contemporary era was the assassination of the duke of argentina. This spun many reigons into the period of turmoil known as World War 1. In both cases we see the massive effects that the killing of a political leader has on the global situation as a whole.

  35. In the early modern era, the Chinese explorer, Zheng He, took many voyages that were funded by the government around the world to establish a presence in other lands. His massive fleet traveled to culturally diverse territories like India and Africa to learn more about their governments and trading tactics. While they visited these lands they were respectful to their cultures and are open to new ideas. We see this also in Christopher Colombus’ travels to the New World that were funded by Ferdinand and Isabel. However, when he traveled to these new lands their fleet was not respectful to local culture and attempted to take over the land.

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